By Prof. Lefteris Kaliambos (Natural Philosopher in New Energy)

July 20 , 2015

In the history of nuclear physics unfortunately under the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutron (1932) theoretical physicists abandoned the well-established electromagnetic laws in favour of wrong nuclear theories and models which could not lead to the correct nuclear force and nuclear structure. Despite the enormous success of the Bohr model (1913) and the Schrodinger equation in three dimensions (1926) based on the well-established laws of electromagnetism neither was able to reveal the simplest structures of deuteron and of Helium-4. In photo I am with Dr. Th. Kalogeropoulos (student of Einstein) at the nuclear conference held in NCSR “ Demoritos” (2002), where I presented my discovery of nuclear force and structure. He was very surprised when I told him that my discovery of the law of energy and mass in nuclear phenomena modifies the invalid "mass-energy equivalence".

Today It is well known that the great physicists Heisenberg (1932) and Yukawa (1935) under the invalid relativity (experiments reject relativity) and the wrong assumptions that the neutron has no charges developed wrong theories of the so-called strong interaction which cannot lead to the nuclear structures. Although the simplest nuclear structure of deuteron with S =1 cannot be governed by the qualitative approach of the Pauli Principle (S = 0), Heisenberg in order to explain this difficulty introduced the wrong concept of *Isospin*, while Yukava introduced the wrong concept of *exchange mesons * based on Einstein's invalid massless quanta of fields. Under such false ideas various contradicting nuclear structure models like the the liquid drop the Fermi gas and the shell models were developed without any success.

On the other hand in the absence of the fundamental charge-charge interaction of natural laws in order to interpret the very strong attractive nuclear force at very short distances of about 1.5/10^{15} m the nuclear physicists hypothesized that an unknown attractive force in the systems proton-neutron, proton-proton and neutron-neutron occurs under the fallacious *Charge Independence Hypothesis*. Later the experiments showed that in nucleons there axist charge distributions able to give forces of fundamental charge-charge interactions.

Nevertheless after the discovery of the magnetic moments which showed that in nucleons exist charge distributions Gell-Mann in 1973 under the false theories of relativity (1905) and of Yukawa mesons (1935) did not use the well-established charge-charge interaction of the discovered charged quarks in nucleons but he tried to interpret the wrong strong interaction by developing his theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Note that he postulated the strange “color forces” between hypothetical massless gluons which cannot exist in accordance with my DISCOVERY OF PHOTON MASS . Under this physics crisis I analyzed carefully the magnetic moments of nucleons and I discovered 9 charged quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron able to give the simplest nuclear structure of the deuterium by reviving the well-established laws of electromagnetism. (See my DISCOVERY OF QUARKS IN PROTON AND NEUTRON ) . It is of interest to note that in my paper NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS GOVERNED BY THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM I showed that a proton-neutron system provides attractive electromagnetic forces of short range, while two neutrons and two protons at very short distances exert repulsive electromagnetic forces of the same short range. In some symmetrical cases like in Helium nucleus the very strong attractive electromagnetic forces of the proton-neutron interactions overcome such repulsive forces and lead to the nuclear structure. (See my STRUCTURE OF OXYGEN ISOTOPES in my FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS CONCEPTS). However in heavy nuclei the proton-proton electric repulsions of long range overcome the proton-neutron attractions of short range and lead to the decay.

** **Nevertheless under the influence of wrong nuclear forces nuclear physicists today continue to accept wrong nuclear forces and the various contradicting nuclear structure models, like the liquid drop and the shell models. For example in “Nuclear Force-WIKIPEDIA” one reads the following wrong forces:

“The nuclear force is nearly independent of whether the nucleons are neutrons or protons. This property is called charge independence. The force depends on whether the spins of the nucleons are parallel or antiparallel, and it has a noncentral or tensor component. This part of the force does not conserve orbital angular momentum, which is a constant of motion under central forces. The symmetry resulting in the strong force, proposed by Werner Heisenberg, is that protons and neutrons are identical in every respect, other than their charge. This is not completely true, because neutrons are a tiny bit heavier, but it is an approximate symmetry. Protons and neutrons are therefore viewed as the same particle, but with different isospin quantum number. The strong force is invariant under SU(2) transformations, just as particles with *regular spin* are. Isospin and regular spin are related under this SU(2) symmetry group. There are only strong attractions when the total isospin is 0, as is confirmed by experiment.The information on nuclear force are obtained by scattering experiments and the study of light nuclei binding energy. A Feynman diagram of a strong proton-neutron interaction mediated by a neutral pion. Time proceeds from left to right. The nuclear force occurs by the exchange of virtual light mesons, such as the virtual pions, as well as two types of virtual mesons with spin (vector mesons), the rho mesons and the omega mesons. The vector mesons account for the spin-dependence of the nuclear force in this *virtual meson* picture."

On the other hand although the qualitative approach of the so -called Pauli principle with S = 0 of spinning electrons cannot be applied in the simplest structure of deuteron with S =1, in the “Nuclear structure -WIKIPEDIA” one reads the following contradicting nuclear structure models by using incorrectly the above principle:

“The liquid drop model is one of the first models of nuclear structure, proposed by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker in 1935. It describes the nucleus as a semiclassical fluid made up of neutrons and protons, with an internal repulsive electrostatic force proportional to the number of protons. The quantum mechanical nature of these particles appears via the Pauli exclusion principle, which states that no two nucleons of the same kind can be at the same state. The expression *shell model* is ambiguous in that it refers to two different eras in the state of the art. It was previously used to describe the existence of nucleon shells in the nucleus according to an approach closer to what is now called mean field theory. Nowadays, it refers to a formalism analogous to the configuration interaction formalism used in quantum chemistry.”

** **

**DISCOVERY OF 9 CHARGED QUARKS IN PROTON AND 12 ONES IN NEUTRON EXISTING AMONG 288 QUARKS IN NUCLEONS. THEY GIVE THE CORRECT NUCLEAR FORCE BY APPLYING THE WELL-ESTABLISHED ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS.**

Under this physics crisis I analyzed carefully the magnetic moments and the experiments of the deep inelastic scattering of proton and neutron and I showed that the correct proton has 4u and 5d charged quarks, while the correct neutron has 4u and 8d charged quarks able to give the correct binding energy of the deuteron by applying the natural laws of electromagnetism. Note that the mass of an up quark is u = 2.4 MeV/c^{2} while the mass of a down quark is d = 3.69 MeV/c^{2}. Under this condition I discovered that the correct structure of the stable proton consists also of 93 neutral quark triads (dud). Thus the correct structure of the stable proton is given by

Proton = [ 93(dud) + 4u + 5d ] = 288 quarks

Whereas the correct structure of the unstable neutron is given by

Neutron = [ 92(dud) + 4u + 8d ] = 288 quarks

**ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERACTION OF THE EXTRA CHARGED QUARKS IN NUCLEONS LED TO MY DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE, WHILE THE uud AND dud SCHEMES OF GELL-MANN CANNOT LEAD TO THE NUCLEAR STRUCTURE**

Theoretical explanations of atomic, molecular, and solid state phenomena may present formidable mathematical difficulties, but it is at least true that the interactions between the constituent particles are well understood under the applications of the well-established laws of electromagnetism. For these systems the forces the particles exert on each other are entirely of electromagnetic origin. Based on the same laws I found that also in the structure of nuclei the same laws govern the structure since nature works in only one way. It is unfortunate that the discovery of the assumed uncharged neutron for understanding the nuclear structure led to the abandonment of natural laws in favor of various theories of nuclear force and nuclear structure . Even today many nuclear physicists influenced by the wrong Standard Model and by various nuclear models of the nuclear structure do not believe that the fundamental laws of electromagnetism are responsible for the nuclear force and nuclear structure.

According to my discovery of the Photon-Matter Interaction which invalidates Einstein’s mass-energy conservation the energy of massless gluons and the so-called color forces of the Quantum Cromodynamics (Gell-mann,1973) cannot give any information about the charge distribution in nucleons for reviving the well-established laws of electromagnetism. Of course the goal of modern science is to apply the well-established laws governing the nuclear phenomena under my discovery of the considerable charge distributions in nucleons due to the extra 9 charged quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron. However it was a great difficulty in discussing the problem by using a simple math of the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere because at very short distances such considerable charge distributions give compound electromagnetic forces of short range like the dipole-dipole interactions.

Under this condition I worked from 1993 to 2002 in order to formulate a large number of integral equations presented at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics Society (NCSR “Demokritos”,(2002 ). So in my paper NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS GOVERNED BY THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM published in Ind J. Th. Phys. (2003) one sees that the distributed fractional charges in the spinning nucleons explain not only the parallel spin of deuteron but also give the radial binding energy of -2.2246 MeV.

Especially using the experimental value of the proton radius (r = 0.88/10^{15} m ) I found that the applications of electromagnetic forces at the shorter distance of 2r give a proton- neutron binding energy equal to the experimental value of -2.2246 MeV. in this case the nuclear structure is very simple because the proton and the neutron have parallel spin. In other words they seem to be like the two wheels of a moving bicycle.

I found also that according to the electromagnetic laws the negligible motional EMF in the coupling of two deuterons is responsible for the strong proton-neutron bonds in the Helium nucleus with a total antiparallel spin along the spin axis. Of course the radial energy and the very strong axial energy imply a great anisotropy which explains the rapidly increase of the binding energy of deuteron to the binding energy of the Helium nucleus (- 28.29 MeV). In this case the very strong axial bonds of the proton-neutron systems overcomes the repulsions of identical nucleons, because the proton-proton repulsions and neutron – neutron repulsions are directed along the diagonals like the ionic crystals.

Here I clear that according to my discovery of the nuclear force and nuclear structure due to the application of the well-established laws of nature the magic numbers of nuclei are related to the special shapes of very stable arrangements in widely different groups. For example the simplest magic nucleus, the He-4, belongs to the group of the two-dimensional structure. Whereas the first parallelepiped is un unstable nucleus because the proton-proton and neutron-neutron repulsions overcome the proton-neutron bonds. Though the O-16 belongs to the group of parallelepipeds, it is a very stable nucleus because the p-n bonds overcome the p-p and n-n repulsions. It is of interest to note that the heaviest magic nucleus, the Pb-208, belongs to another group of orthorhombic systems in which the extra neutrons make extra n-p bonds for giving u stable nucleus. (See my STRUCTURE OF MAGIC NUCLEI).